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Archive for the ‘Research’ Category

Research – Keyboarding, Reading, Spells (KRS) Validation Study

Keyboarding, Reading, Spells (KRS) Validation Study
Ethna R. Reid

The major developmental goal of the Keyboarding, Reading, Spelling (KRS) program was to teach reading and language skills to elementary school students by integrating computer assisted instruction with an instructional method which: is superior to existing programs; takes maximum advantage of the computer’s potential; and teaches keyboarding and computer usage skills. The KRS program incorporates systematic instruction in reading criterion referenced mastery tests, and intrinsic motivation. Teachers wishing to implement the KRS program attend a one- to two-day seminar. A pre-post comparison group design was used to assess the KRS program on each of four outcomes (reading, language, keyboarding, and computer operations). Classes from two schools in the Murray City Schools (Utah) were assigned at random to either the treatment or comparison condition. Grades one, three and five from one school and grades two, four, and six from another school received KRS instruction. Results indicated that in the four months of treatment KRS students demonstrated meaningful improvements in the keyboarding and computer operation skills.


Research – The Effects of Initial Touch Keyboarding Speed Achievement of Fifth Graders and Touch Keyboarding Skill Retention in Seventh Grade

The Effects of Initial Touch Keyboarding Speed Achievement of Fifth Graders and Touch Keyboarding Skill Retention in Seventh Grade
Mark A. Ertl
A Paper Presented to the Faculty of Viterbo University in Paritial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree in Master of Arts in Education

“The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship of initial touch speed achievement of fifth grade keyboarding students on their touch keyboarding skill retention in seventh grade. Numerous research and articles from the 80’s and 90’s are evident in a review of the literature. A rising use of computers at the elementary level during this time heightened the need to determine what is an appropriate use and level of keyboarding skill for children. The literature indicates a consensus for the need of keyboarding skills, however, there remains debate as to when and how the instruction of this skill is to take place.”

Skill Retention, General, Side Effects Improved Writing, NETS, Amount Needed, Maintaining Skills

Research – Rates of Development of Keyboarding Skills in Elementary School Aged Children With and Without Identified Learning Disabilities

Rates of Development of Keyboarding Skills in Elementary School Aged Children With and Without Identified Learning Disabilities
Bart Pisha
A Thesis Presented to the Faculty of the Graduate School of Education of Harvard University in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Education.

In this study I examine the acquisition of keyboarding skills by individuals of elementary school age. My introduction and review of literature trace the history of typewriting and keyboarding in American schools. Other literature is also probed, including studies of written language disabilities and their remediation, handwriting instruction, the underlying psychological processes implicated in the acquisition of typing and keyboarding skills, the process approach to writing, and the role of word processing in modern writing instruction. I discuss how these topics interrelate and affect writing skills development.

Research – It Fingers: A Review of Keyboarding Literature

“It Fingers: A Review of Keyboarding Literature”


Research – Hierarchical Skills in Typewriting

Hierarchical Skills in Typewriting
Paul Fendrick (1937)
The State College of Washington

Journal of Educational Psychology 28 (8) 609-620

This study presents an attempt to measure the hierarchical relationship of certain common typewriting skills which are manifested by operators representing various levels of achievement. Its origin can be traced to the classic investigations of Bryan and Harter in the field of telegraphy and Book in the field of typewriting. Such terms as letter, word, and phrase habits are landmarks in the language equipment of the educational psychologist and it was, therefore, considered desirable to reevaluate the hierarchical point of view by experimental typewriting under conditions somewhat at variance with the usual test procedures.

Research – Teaching Keyboarding – When? Why? How?

Teaching Keyboarding – When? Why? How?
Stow, L. (2001)
Education World, The Educator’s Best Friend


Research – Keyboarding for Students with Handwriting Problems: A Literature Review

Keyboarding for Students with Handwriting Problems: A Literature Review

Andrew R. Freeman
Physical & Occupational Therapy in Pediatrics: A Quarterly Journal of Developmental Therapy 25 (1/2) January 2005 119-147


A literature review is presented regarding keyboarding for school students experiencing handwriting difficulties. Despite the overall dearth of research, some general conclusions appear warranted. Students need to be able to keyboard at least as fast as they can handwrite and should learn the touch-keyboarding method if possible. Appropriate instruction appears critical for the development of keyboarding competency. The upper elementary age is an appropriate time to start teaching keyboarding, with students possibly requiring 25-30 total hours of instruction. Students experiencing handwriting difficulties might need customized goals and strategies. Although the existing literature regarding the role of performance components in keyboarding provides some direction to clinicians, further investigation is required.

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